Cairo is the capital of Egypt. It is considered the largest city in the Middle East and Africa. It is also known as “the city of a thousand minarets” because of the large number of mosques it has. Cairo in Arabic is “Al-Qahirah” which means the victorious one.
It has more than 20 million inhabitants. It is located in the north of Egypt, in the south of Delta, and on the bank of the Nile river. It occupies 528 km2. It is 120 km from the Suez Canal, 165 km from the south of the Mediterranean.
Cairo is a mixture of several civilizations; the historical, the modern, the Coptic, and the Islamic. It is considered the gateway to Egypt because it is the center that can move anywhere.
The History of Cairo
It is from the Old Empire between the years 2635 and 2155 (of the dynasty III to VI) the period of the construction of the pyramids.
The current history of Cairo starts from 116 BC. The Romans founded a city and fortress that was the first city inhabited by the Copts.
In 640 A.D. the Muslims invaded Egypt. Amr Ibn Alas founded “Fustat” which is considered the first capital of Egypt and the administrative center. In 641 A.D. he built the Mosque of Amr Ibn Alas in this city.
In 750 A.D. Emperor Suleiman “of the Abbasids” founded the city “Al-Askar” as a military settlement. Only the Mosque of Ahmed Ibn Tulun comes from this city.
In 969 A.D. Gawhar “of the Fatimids” founded Cairo and the Al-Azhar Mosque as the second Islamic university in the world.
In 1176 A.D. Saladin “of the Ayyubid dynasty” built the Citadel of Saladin as an administrative center.
It is considered the capital of Egypt since the Ottoman Empire with its new mosques, markets, public baths, madrasas, and other constructions.
In 1340 it is considered the most important city in Africa.
Climate in Cairo
The climate in Cairo is dry in the summer and moderate, rainy in the winter. The best time to visit this city and enjoy your time is in early spring, autumn, and winter from October to April.
There are many tourist and historical places in Cairo. The Pharaonic, the Islamic, the Christian, and the Coptic are mixed. It has numerous mosques and churches. There are also the pyramids and the Great Egyptian Museum.
1-The Pyramids of Giza
The three Pyramids of Giza (Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure) are the main and most famous pyramids of the pyramids of Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Cheops is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
2- The Great Sphinx
It is in the Giza Complex with the three Giza Pyramids. King Kephren built the Sphinx with the form of a human head as a symbol of intelligence and a lion’s body as a symbol of strength.
3- The Citadel of Saladin
It was an administrative center in the Ayyubid dynasty. Saladin built it between 1176 and 1183 AD. It contains one of the famous mosques it’s the Mosque of Muhammad Ali.
4-The Bazaar of Khan El-Khalili
A very important market that contains all kinds of stores of colored lamps, fabrics, jewelry, and many others. It is considered more famous in Egypt and the Middle East.
5-The Valley Temple
It is in the Giza Complex, near the Great Sphinx. In this temple, they made the process of mummification.
6- The Hanging Church
It is also known as The Church of the Virgin Mary. It is in Old Cairo and one of the oldest churches. It was built on the Roman fortress in the third or fourth century AD.
Visit Cairo with Jakada Tours Egypt
Don’t miss the opportunity to closely explore the land of the pharaohs and enjoy the whole country on organized trips. If you care about this wonderful civilization, see our Egypt travel packages and choose the trip to Egypt that you prefer. Also don’t miss the opportunity to enjoy a cruise on the Nile between Luxor and Aswan.