The historical places in Egypt are many that attract many tourists from many countries. Because of the belief of the pharaonic and the religious importance in their life, they imported to build their civilization.
Egyptian civilization is very large, more than 4000 years BC. c. therefore Egypt is known by the name “the cradle of civilization.” Civilization began on the banks of the River Nile because of its fertile land. This civilization was before the unification of the country but the importance of the history of civilization began after the unification of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
The ancient Capital of Egypt is the city of Memphis. Memphis is considered the first capital of Ancient Egypt. Memphis has great importance in history and was the most populated in the world. Memphis, the necropolis of Saqqara, and the Pyramids of Giza represent great importance in the history of the country.
The History of Memphis
King Menes was the first pharaoh in Egypt and the founder of the first dynasty. Memphis was built by King Menes as the capital of Egypt when he unified between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. It was founded in 3200 BC. c. Memphis was the capital from Dynasty I to Dynasty VIII. It was resurfaced during the era of King Ramses II and Merenptah (pharaohs of the XIX dynasty).
Their local god was Ptah (the god of creation) and Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah. In its past, it was full of people almost 30 thousand inhabitants, and had many factories and warehouses. It was the center of commerce and religion.
When other capitals such as Thebes, Pi-Ramsis, and Tanis were built, Memphis was considered as the second city of Egypt for its religious importance by the god Ptah. In 641 it was abandoned and its remains were used in the construction of the capital Cairo. Since the construction of the capital Alexandria, Memphis began to lose its importance.
The Origin of the Name
In the ancient empire, Memphis was known by the name “Ine-hedy” which means the white wall for the King’s palace that was made of white stones. In the Middle Empire, it was “Anj-tauy” which means the balance of the two lands. It was then known as “Men-Nefer” which means stable in beauty. In the Coptic it was Menphe and in the Greek it was Memphis.
The Construction of Memphis
It was founded in the southern delta of the Nile River, on the west bank. It is 19 km from Cairo. The city is not preserved in its original form, they are known about it from the ancient writings in the other temples. The ruins of the Temple of Ptah in the city of Memphis are some statues and archaeological remains.
There is the Open Air Museum. What can stand out in this place is a great sphinx that measures 4 m in height and 7 m in length. The weight of the sphinx is 80 tons. The sphinx is said to be dedicated to Queen Hatshepsut. Many statues of King Ramses II are exhibited in other museums but now there is a colossus of Ramses II that measured 13 m high but due to the loss of part of his legs it is 10 m high.
Memphis was the first capital of Egypt. The god Ptah, his wife Sekhmet, and their son Nefertem were the triad of Memphis. To unify the country, Menes chose a strategic place to found the capital that is why it is between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. It was the most populated city until 2250 BC. c. In 1979 Memphis and its necropolis is considered a World Heritage Site. Today Memphis is known by the name “Mit-Rahina.”
Learn more through Jakada Tours Egypt
Do not miss the opportunity to visit the most important pharaonic places in Cairo such as Memphis, Saqqara, and the three Pyramids of Giza. It is very interesting to explore the history of Egypt “the pharaonic land” by an organized tour. Choose what is best for you in our Egypt travel packages or Nile cruise.